In July 1755 the French defeated the British general braddock’s army at fort duquesne. News came that Charles Laurence, the English governor of nova scotia, had forcibly deported ten thousand of them to Louisiana, fearing that the French inhabitants of the native arcadia would seize the opportunity for disorder.
The following year, another British general, James Wolfe, won a decisive victory outside Quebec city and captured it. Montreal also fell to the British in 1760. By this time Britain was in effect in complete control of new France.
The treaty of Paris in 1763 officially made new France a British colony. British possessions in North America were then south to the gulf of Mexico and north to Hudson bay.
Britain’s victory meant that some 60,000 French canadians (including 1,500 acadians who had returned from Louisiana) had to adapt to a very different way of life.
Fortunately, British rule, on the whole, proved to be moderate. The British rulers adopted English criminal law, but soon realized that they had to keep the French civil law in use. The Quebec act of 1774 formally established that both sets of laws were in force simultaneously.
When the United States became independent in 1776, royalists, regardless of rank and file, fled the new United States of America and made their homes in Canada. These newcomers were quite different from the original inhabitants in religion, law and social system. How to adapt to each other between the two, who is the main serious problem.
This problem was partially solved in 1791. The colonial government divided the original province of Quebec into two parts, upper and lower Canada, which are now Ontario and Quebec. Each section has its own parliament.
The original province of nova scotia was gradually divided into several parts: prince Edward island became a British crown colony in 1769; The province of new Brunswick was founded in 1784; Newfoundland was originally a fishing base until it had its own provincial government in 1832.