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代写-乳酸发酵过程的机械结晶结构分析

代写-乳酸发酵过程的机械结晶结构分析。在生物塑料生产中,富含糖的化合物、淀粉的化合物和纤维素的方法是生产生物塑料的关键。糖被分离出来,送到发酵室。为了分离所需要的化合物,最常见的乳酸菌属属安魂灵。为了生成产品所需的产品,它们应该基本存在。在生物塑料的生产中,已经发现乳酸菌的种类被用于生产。利用乳酸杆菌属的Homo发酵方法生产乳酸。这种方法是首选的,因为它增加了乳酸的生产,并减少了其产生的副产物的数量。在发酵方法之后,该结构的聚合和开环发生在导致聚乳酸产生的化合物中(Jamshidian et al, 2010)。接下来论文范文代写-乳酸发酵过程的机械结晶结构分析如下:

For the production of Bio plastic sugar rich compounds, starch rich compounds and lingo cellulose method are crucial for the production of bio plastics. The sugars are isolated and are sent into the fermentation chambers. In order to isolate the required compounds most commonly lactobacillus species are requiem. They should be essentially present in order to generate required by product. For Bio plastics production, it has been found that Lactobacillus species are used for the production. The most commonly used Lactobacillus species are Lactobacillus del- brueckii, L. amylophilus, L. bulgaricus, and L. leichmanii Jamshidian et al (Jamshidian et al, 2010). Homo fermentative method of Lactobacillus species is used for the production of Lactic acid. This method is preferred because of the increase in lactic acid production and for the decreased amount of by-products that it generates. Subsequent to the fermentative method the polymerization and ring opening of the structures occurs in the compounds leading to the production of PLA (Jamshidian et al, 2010). As discussed earlier there are number of methods that are available in order to produce the PLA. In order to determine the production of monomer and for determination of the concentration
M(t) 5 Meq 1 (M0 2 Meq)e(2KpIt) (Garlotta, 2001)
Xmon(t) 5 (1 2 Meq /M0)(1 2 e(2KpIt) )
Meq 5 e(DHp/RT 2 DSpR)
Where
M(t)= monomer concentration at time (t)
Meq = equilibrium monomer concentration
M0 = Initial monomer concentration toxicity,
Kp = propagation rate constant in 1
I catalyst concentration in mole %
t = time in hours
Xmon = monomer to polymer conversion at time (t)
Ea = energy of activation
R = gas constant
T = polymerization temperature in Kelvin
DH =enthalpy of polymerization
DS = entropy of polymerization (Garlotta, 2001)
Based on this analysis, along with analysis of the mechical crystalline structural analyses a number of derivatives are derived in order to determine the best sources of lactic acid fermentation process.
Commercially in the current times there are four kinds of PLA they are classified into Class A, Class Z, Class Y and Class V (Garlotta, 2001). This is based on their degradation time. For class, A the degradation times are 2 years, for Class Z it is only 20 to 45 days and v is significantly has faster rates of degradation in waste composition. Class Y is a special mold of plastics that is created from raw material completely.

论文范文代写-乳酸发酵过程的机械结晶结构就为留学生分析到这里。中国留学生论文代写找新西兰高阶论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,此平台帮助解决中国留学生的论文写作难题,为留学生提供新西兰代写、essay代写、assignment代写等论文服务,保证论文原创,并使用权威的抄袭检测系统,让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

代寫論文-羅技的先發優勢和收購策略

代寫論文-羅技的先發優勢和收購策略。合並和收購對一個公司來說是必要的,羅技已經進行了許多戰略性的收購,因為它幫助增強了它的投資組合。例如,從Connectix收購QuickCam PC,被視為有助於其為女性市場推廣創新技術。為了擴大視頻會議業務,它收購了Labtec。後來,它收購了plot Technologies,以便專注於遠程控制生產。合並和收購在公司規模經濟、合並戰略能力、擴大地理范圍和細分市場方面具有優勢。雖然公司進行了收購作為公司層面戰略的一部分,但也存在相關風險,比如如果收購或合並進展不順利,不解決這些問題本身就是一個風險。接下來論文范文代寫論文-羅技的先發優勢和收購策略分享給留學生閱讀。

Mergers and acquisitions are necessary for a company and Logitech has made many strategic acquisitions as it helped enhance its portfolio. For instance, the acquisition of the QuickCam PC from Connectix was seen to help it market the innovative technology for the women segment. In order to expand in video conferencing, it acquired Labtec. Inc and then later it acquired Intrigue Technologies in order to focus on remote control production. Mergers and acquisitions holds advantages in the form of economies of scale for the companies, combined strategic capability, expanded geographical reach and market segments (Bena & Li, 2014).

While acquisitions have been carried out by the company as part of a corporate level strategy there have been associated risks in the form of what if the acquisition or merger does not go well and not addressing them is a risk in itself (Bena & Li, 2014). In the context of acquisitions there are risks of conflict between the managers of the respective divisions. Employees might drop out of the acquired company or might not understand the work culture of the new company. Redundant work units might not be identified properly leading to cost issues in running the company. Autonomous decision making plays a critical role in the success of acquisitions and companies might not give this independence to another after the merger (Cartwright & Cooper, 2014). There are risks associated with the first mover advantage. A company might launch a product misunderstanding needs of the society. When other competitors don’t exist for an innovative technology or a product then consumers might be wary of the product (Cleff, & Rennings, 2012), but this wasn’t the case for Logitech when it initially launched as a first mover.

論文范文代寫論文-羅技的先發優勢和收購策略就為留學生分享到這裏。中國留學生英語論文不會寫怎么辦?可以找新西蘭論文代寫Advanced Thesis平台機構,此論文代寫平台幫助中國留學生解決論文寫作難題,為留學生提供畢業論文代寫、essay代寫、assignment代寫等論文服務,保證論文原創,而且論文代寫價格公平合理,並使用權威的抄襲檢測系統,讓留學生們輕松應對論文寫作並創作出專屬個人的優秀論文!

代寫論文-ICC人力管理實踐的討論

代寫論文-ICC人力管理實踐的討論。ICC通過實施有效的人力資源管理實踐,在澳大利亞和新西蘭聯合舉辦了2015年《禁止化學武器公約》。ICC事先明確確定了活動團隊成員的角色、任務和職責,以有效地協助活動的順利進行。具體的培訓課程由ICC通過專業培訓師或活動專家向活動團隊成員進行管理,以提高活動團隊成員的技能、知識和能力。而且,使用激勵理論、領導理論、管理風格,有效的協調,和清晰的溝通可能被刑事法庭用來創建一個高水平的意識的員工,因為這些人力資源實踐的使用將影響他們的態度和行為是有效的貢獻對事件的成功實現,他們的角色和職責負責(銀和戈德布拉特,2012)。論文范文代寫論文-ICC人力管理實踐的討論分享給留學生閱讀。

ICC organized the CWC 2015 in Australia and NewZealand jointly by implementing effective human resource management practices. ICC determined the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of the event team members clearly in advance that assisted in the smooth running of the operational activities of the event effectively. The specific training sessions were managed by ICC to the event team members through the expert trainers or event specialists in order to enhance the skills, knowledge, and capabilities of the event team members. Along with this, the use of motivational theories, leadership theories, management styles, effective coordination, and clear communication could be used by ICC to create a high level of awareness among the employees because the use of these human resources practices will be effective to influence their attitudes and behaviors to contribute toward the successful implementation of the event by playing their roles and duties responsibly (Silvers and Goldblatt, 2012). Additionally, the supportive work environment, good employment relations, performance monitoring, and appraisal, and training and coaching facilities, and monetary awards are such motivational factors that could be used by ICC to encourage the employees to perform effectively for the accomplishment the goals and objectives of the event.

It is also evaluated that there was a strong fit or coordinated balance among ICC, ACB, and event. ACB played a significant role in managing the event as directed by ICC. ACB worked as per preplanning and event management structure set by ICC. There was a coordinated mechanism or balanced communication between the members of ICC and ACB. ACB assigned the duties, tasks, and responsibilities of different event team members including cricket expert committee, ground management staff, operational staff members, coaches, umpires, commentary team, match referees, and cricket analysts team (Allen, 2009). All cricket matches of this event were organized effectively as per predetermined schedules, budget, and allocated resource requirements.

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代写价格-咖啡品牌生产的故事

代写价格-咖啡品牌生产的故事。对一个公司来说,品牌管理的一个重要方面是不仅要将品牌与产品或服务联系起来,还要以无形的价值来展示品牌。将咖啡产品与人们的社会文化氛围联系起来是咖啡店的一项技术。在这种情况下,通过包括消费者来呈现咖啡生产的故事,可以帮助消费者感觉与产品有类似的关联。这对该行业来说是个好兆头。其次,专门为这次活动创建的网站表明,这次活动使现有的公司也可以学习如何使他们成为更可持续的企业。接下来论文范文代写价格-咖啡品牌生产的故事分享给留学生阅读。

These form of events helps to bring together a vast population. It helps to bring together all coffee lovers in one space to try out what they like. An important aspect of brand management for a company is to not only aim at connecting brand with a product or a service but to present the brand in terms of an intangible value. Associating the coffee products with social and cultural ambience for people is a technique made use of coffee shops. In this context presenting the story of coffee production by means of including the consumer helps the consumer feel a similar association with the product. This would bode well for the industry. Secondly the website that was created specifically for the event indicates that the event was one that enabled the existing companies to also learn in terms of how they could become more sustainable as businesses. For instance, their collaborations with UTZ Certified’s Energy from Coffee Wastewater Project increased substantially after the event. The event hence managed to expose the participants of the event to their sustainability options.

The UTZ is a program that works on advocating for the sustainable farming in coffee industry, the exploitation in the context of farming for coffee, cocoa and tea are reduced here. Furthermore, an important agenda in sustainable farming is the amount of waste water that is released when coffee production happens, this affects the environment. Waste water resources could be treated so as to protect the environment and this form of information advocacy, exposure and connections were established because of the event. Booths for UTZ information advocacy were a vital part of the event. It was not only the event organizers and the event participants such as the traders who got to hear this information, but it was also the consumers (The Coffee Experience, 2015).

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论文代写-利用买方的力量来软化竞争

论文代写-利用买方的力量来软化竞争,买方力量提供了一个整体的背景,在这个背景下,市场上的竞争力量可以得到增强。这意味着随着买方力量程度的提高,银行业各参与者之间的勾结可以得到控制,其强度可以降低。买方力量是市场竞争发展的基础。竞争对手的存在和买方力量的作用是相反的。而竞争性竞争在行业内许多公司相互勾结的情况下最为有效,另一方面,买方力量的存在则有助于打击这种形式的勾结,并带来更大程度的竞争。有一股强大的主导力量,买方力量打击银行市场运作中的勾结力量。竞争的确定是市场效率发展的一个重要方面。需要发展市场力量,带动创新和效率的提高。这些力量依赖于为了长期发展而在玩家之间进行激烈竞争的需要。论文范文论文代写-利用买方的力量来软化竞争分享给留学生阅读。

The presence of competitive rivalry and buyer power works in opposite direction. While competitive rivalry works best in the presence of collusion between the many companies working in the industry, on the other hand, the presence of buyer power works to strike at such form of collusion and bring about greater level of competition. There is a strong dominant force whereby buyer power strikes at the power of collusion within the working of the banking market (Fuertes & Heffernan, 2009).
The determination of competition is an important aspect for the development of efficiency of the market. There is a need for the development of market forces for bringing along improvement in innovation and efficiency. Such forces are dependent on the need to have strong competitive rivalry among the players for the sake of long-term development (Fuertes & Heffernan, 2009).

Buyer power provides the overall background using which competitive forces can be increased in the market. It means that with the development of higher degree of buyer power, the presence of collusion between the various players of the banking industry can be managed and its intensity can be reduced. Buyer power provides the basis for the competition development in the market. As market players firm up their plans regarding the strategies in line with the buyer power, it creates a strong influencing factor. This means that buyer power creates the enabling environment which develops a system to reduce the impact of the competition and ensures that the provisions of collusion are absent in the market (Inderst & Ottaviani, 2012).
Strong buyer power provides reduced scope for the presence of collusion among the players of the market. There is a need for them to have development of norms which are likely to create ensure reduced chances of collusion as the buyers exert pressure on the market participants to innovate and reduce the costs of operations. There is a strong incentive and need which exists within the market for the need to have innovation among the players which can be seen and developed on the basis of the buyer power. As banking players continue to progress and respond to the changes in the buying preferences, there is a strong possibility that they are unable to create partnerships which aim to reduce competition. The provisions of competition get a boost with the development of strong buyer power (Inderst & Ottaviani, 2012).

论文范文论文代写-利用买方的力量来软化竞争就为留学生分享到这里。中国留学生英语论文不会写,可以找新西兰高阶论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,此平台帮助解决中国留学生的论文写作难题,为留学生提供新西兰代写、essay代写、assignment代写等论文服务,保证论文原创,并使用权威的抄袭检测系统,让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

代寫-國際會計准則委員會的工作重點

代寫-國際會計准則委員會的工作重點。國際會計准則委員會(International Accounting Standards Board,簡稱iasb)的工作重點是,向希望在資產分配方面做出合理選擇的金融專家提供有用數據的措施。IASB信任的特殊屬性使數據有用,例如可靠性、相關性和等價性。會計理論安排的創造意味著經濟現實的概念模型,其中包括對一項信息的重新安排和顯示。它包含了翻譯和理解文章的具體方法,這實際上意味著選擇一種學習主題的智力狀態。論文范文代寫-國際會計准則委員會的工作重點分享給留學生閱讀。

The International Accounting Standards Board is focused on delivery of measures that give helpful data to financial specialists looking to settle on logical choices regarding the assignment of assets. The extraordinary attributes that the IASB trusts make the data helpful, for example, reliability, relevance and equivalence. The creation of accounting theory arrangement implies a conceptual model of an economic reality, which includes the rearrangements and demonstration of an item of information.And it includes a specific method for translation and comprehension the article, which implies actually, picking an intellectual state of mind towards the learning theme.

For a considerable length of time, the public organizations have been assessing their performance as per the strategy for Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and markers, for example, Earnings per Share (EPS). By the continuous and elongated application, GAAP pointers have turned into the brand estimations in current market. However, the theory of Economic Value Added (EVA) is a progressive technique to assess the worth of a firm. In its most simple configuration, EVA is an outline that chooses firms’ value and its performing-capacity as per their economic reality, not figures delivered by the conventional laws of accounting (Biddle, Bowen and Wallace, 2008). EVA lays big benchmarks for assessing the performance and is crucial for all organizations which want to make worth for their shareholders. The most significant way to assess the economic reality, EVA is significantly further. EVA is the framework for a absolute budgetary administration and incentive paying framework that can control each choice an organization makes, from the meeting room to the operational area that can change a corporate society, can enhance the operational existences of everybody in a firm by bringing more success to them, and can assist them in making more prominent riches for shareholders, clients, and themselves.

論文范文代寫-國際會計准則委員會的工作重點就為留學生分享到這裏。留學生論文寫作提升,可以找新西蘭論文代寫Advanced Thesis平台機構,此平台的論文代寫價格公平合理,擅長寫作科目廣泛,有essay代寫、report代寫、assignment代寫等論文服務,豐富的論文代寫經驗值得留學生選擇和信賴!

代写论文-西方建筑对日本城市规划的影响

代写论文-西方建筑对日本城市规划的影响。日本在代谢物时代的城市规划和重建,造就了前川国夫、田庄贤三等伟大的建筑师。事实上,前川支持在新陈代谢建筑中使用西方现代作品的概念。在这一时期建造的当代建筑受到了Tatamai地板概念的影响,但设计、钢材、花园和设计中使用的雕塑都是根据西方的思想建造的。日本的新城市规划是由Maki Fumikiko完成的,他也提出了关于围绕内部空间的原则的建议。佛教思想在建筑中的运用也受到了影响。他进一步将西方对建筑的影响运用到设计的形式中,这样一来,花园和天空的设计越来越受到重视。论文范文代写论文-西方建筑对日本城市规划的影响分享给留学生阅读。

The urban planning and the reconstruction of Japan during the metabolist time had provided some of the great architects such as Maekawa Kunio and Tange Kenzo. Maekawa actually had supported the concept of the use of the modern works from the west in the metabolist architecture. The contemporary buildings which were built during this time period had been influenced from the concepts of Tatamai flooring but the designs, the steel, the gardens and the sculptures which were used in the design had been constructed from the ideas of the west. The new city planning in Japan which was done by Maki Fumikiko who also gave the suggestion related to the principles of cocooning around the inner space. The use o he ideas of the Buddhist in the architecture had also been influenced. He further implemented the western influence in the architecture in the form of the use of the designs in such a manner that the emphasis had been laid more and more on the view of the garden and the sky designs. Thus, it can be said that this architectural concept had been completely based on the concept of change and how the same does had an influence from the western architecture. The architectures also used the open staircases and the bridges so as to facilitate good atmosphere and also to ensure a standard living. Further the ideas of the west had been strengthened when the open courtyards had been used in the buildings. This also included the terrace spaces in the building itself, a space for the pedestrian walking and the construction of the bridges in order to ensure that there is a connection of the buildings.
The architecture of metabolists has an influence on the architectural community of Japan. Other than this, it had a significant influence of the architecture of the west. The metabolist architecture had accepted the Western Stereotype of Japan. The proposals of the metabolists had been accepted by the people with a great interest. Initially when the town planning had been done in the western style, the people of Japan responded to the urban situation which had been characterized by the lack of infrastructure and the absence of city planning.

论文范文代写论文-西方建筑对日本城市规划的影响就为留学生分享到这里。留学生论文写作提升,可以找新西兰论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,此平台的论文代写价格公平合理,擅长写作科目广泛,有essay代写、report代写、assignment代写等论文服务,良好的口碑和信誉、丰富的论文代写经验值得留学生选择和信赖!

代写价格-英国年度报告中的分析图表

代写价格-英国年度报告中的分析图表。Sugden(1989)的实证研究提供了大量与英国年度报告中可能包含的图表相关的误导实践的例子。Rice和Roemmich(1980)进行了另一项实证研究,他们对公司在1977年和1978年的50份不同年度报告进行了检查。这些公司的名单是从《财富》500强中挑选出来的。在这份清单中,在所有年度报告的423张图中,大约有125张图是用不恰当的方式构建的。用于构建这些图的样本量更小,它们实际上不符合测量失真的程度(Healy & Wahlen, 1999)。还有许多其他作家也越来越强调图形感知中的认知任务(Kosslyn, 1985, 1989;(Simkin & Hastie. 1987),并实施了该方案,以分析图表在三个不同层次上的沟通有效性。这包括句法、语义和语用。论文范文代写价格-英国年度报告中的分析图表分享给留学生阅读。

The empirical studies had been conducted by Sugden (1989) who provided the examples of the large number of misleading practices related to the graphs which may be containing in the annual reports prepared in UK. Another empirical study was done by Rice and Roemmich (1980) who did the examination for the fifty different annual reports of the companies in the year 1977 and 1978. The list of the companies had been selected from the Fortune 500 list. In this list, out of the total of 423 graphs in all the annual reports, around 125 of the graphs had been constructed in an improper manner. The sample size which had been used for the purpose of construction of these graphs was smaller and they actually didn’t qualify to the degree of measurement distortion (Healy & Wahlen, 1999). There are many other writers who have also laid more and more emphasis on the cognitive tasks in the graphical perception to a greater extent (Kosslyn, 1985, 1989; Simkin & Hastie. 1987) and have implemented the scheme for the purpose of analysis of the communicative effectiveness of the graphs at three different levels. These include the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic.

The model directly focuses on the basic components which are related to the graph. Other than this, it also specifies the interrelations which may be there at different levels of analysis. Some of the effective communication may require that the graph doesn’t violate any of the acceptability principles at some or the other levels. The scheme for the evaluation of the graphs by Kosslyn’s is broader than that of Cleveland. The primary function of the graph s is to provide the information. From the literature it can be analysed that the graphs related to some of the most important financial variables are required to be included in the annual reports of some of the companies whose performance is good rather than the companies whose performance is not good.The performance in these situations has been analysed in the terms of earnings per share and the profit which is earned before the tax as the profit indicators (Dilla & Janvrin, 2010).

论文范文代写价格-英国年度报告中的分析图表就为留学生分享到这里。中国留学生论文代写可以找新西兰高阶论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,此平台帮助解决中国留学生的论文写作难题,为留学生提供新西兰代写、essay代写、assignment代写等论文服务,保证论文原创,并使用权威的抄袭检测系统,让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!

 

新西兰代写-资本结构中的破产成本

新西兰代写-资本结构中的破产成本。资本结构的经典命题改变了要素假设。企业所得税是由他们整合而成的,他们认为,企业的杠杆价值等于企业的非杠杆价值和企业的所得税收益价值。债务利息可以抵税。这进而为企业发行债券提供了激励。根据Modigliani和Miller(1964)的观点,税收模型描述了企业可以通过尽可能多的利用债务来提高其价值。根据Modigliani和Miller的观点,假设市场具有完美的资本,代理和破产债务成本可以忽略不计。债务相关的代理和破产相关的债务成本。债务相关的机构和破产的价格可能会超过税收的好处,在一个非常有针对性的设置在现实领域。由于这些成本,在债务和权益之间存在权衡。这说明存在一定的债务相关阈值水平。论文范文新西兰代写-资本结构中的破产成本分享给留学生阅读。

element assumption was changed for the capital structure classical proposition. The corporate income tax was integrated by them and they argued that the levered firm value is equivalent to the unlevered firm value along with the obtained tax benefit value. Interest over debt has deductibility of tax . This in turn provides companies with incentivizes for issuing debt. According to Modigliani and Miller (1964), the model for tax depicts that firms can enhance their value through use of as much debt as there is a possibility . Due to the assumed market with perfect capital, the agency and bankruptcy debt costs can be ignored as per Modigliani and Miller. Debt related agency and bankruptcy related debt costs. Debt related agency and bankruptcy prices might overweigh the benefits of tax within a much oriented setting in realistic domain. Due to such costs, there is a trading off between debt and equity. This suggests that there is certain debt related threshold level. There also is a specific debt amount with which the value of firm can have maximization (Almeida, Campello and Weisbach, 2004). According to Jensen and Meckling (1976), 2 types of agency and its conflict can be identified which incurs costs with conflicts between shareholders, managers as well as conflicts between shareholders and also bond holders.

These are the direct costs and also involve indirect costs related with the provision of bankruptcy. The direct prices are inclusive of legal fees as well as time spent by managerial level within the bankruptcy of administering. The indirect prices are inclusive of a possible firm inability for obtaining credit or for issuing any form of security as well as a sales loss because of doubt and fear from consumers and also suppliers (Hodson et al., 2009). As an organization enhances with regard to its debt, the price to financing the debt becomes high as the debt starts becoming riskier towards investment makers. When an organization starts going bankrupt, holders of debt have higher chance to lose part or all of their investments and this asks henceforth a higher return rate (Allen and Santomero 1998). This higher capital costs in turn can lead towards distress of financial nature. This occurs when creditors are promised with honour or broken preference with issues.

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代写论文-新加坡航空公司的可持续发展问题

代写论文-新加坡航空公司的可持续发展问题。由于新加坡遵循的政策,新加坡航空公司的可持续发展问题也随之产生,甚至有所增加。新加坡的开放天空政策在数据部分有所体现。因此,尽管拥有双边协议以及更多双边协议的成员国,在如何使用其领空方面被视为相当严格,但在新加坡领空和新加坡航空公司(SIA)机场的情况下,它们的大部分领空被过度使用。这就导致了能源的过度消耗、污染物的过度排放以及更多的污染物在空气中被释放。然而,新加坡航空的另一个优势在于,它在某些方面被视为先驱。例如,在飞机产生噪音的情况下,新加坡航空一直致力于降低噪音。然而,可以提出另一种观点。可以说,一些机场对噪音产生的经济处罚可能是新航投资的原因。论文范文代写论文-新加坡航空公司的可持续发展问题分享给留学生阅读。

Sustainabilityissues in the case of SIA are also caused or rather increased because of the policy followed by Singapore. Singapore is seen to have an open sky policy as presented in the data section. So while members that have bilateral agreements and more are seen to be quite restrictive in how their airspace is used, in the case of the Singapore airspace and the SIA airports much of it is overused. This leads to excessive consumption of energy, excessive pollutant and emission being released in the airspace and more. Yet another key issue with respect to sustainability governance and accountability was how some of the key reports are seen to be missing in the case of SIA and also only some elements of GRI are covered. Primarily, SIA states that they make use of ISO 14001 in their annual report from 2006 and mention of GRI is also seen in the case of sustainability reports from 2009/10 and 2010/11. However, the assurance factor that is needed for this information presented in SIA to be considered as credible is absent. According to GRI G4-33 guidelines, there should be external assurances for reporting. The external assurances for reporting are what will increase the credibility of reporting. They will ensure that the provider has made use of authentic information. The assurance provider could be a sustainability consultant, some auditor etc. The lack of assurance hence raises questions. Additionally, as secondary research evidence suggests some of the environmental reports are stated to have been generated but are absent online. These are reports for 2001/02 etc.

One of the existing research arguments placed was that CSR reporting came to be so extensive because of the external pressures in reporting. It was identified that there was political pressure in reporting in the case of European airlines, and similarly there were reasons for reporting in the case of others such as the need for competitiveness (Heeres et al, 2011). However, in the case of SIA there was no reason in terms of politics for the Singapore to take up the reporting initiative in sustainability as SIA was owned by the state. The good point in SIA initiatives with respect to sustainability is that they have been taken up solely for the purpose of incorporating sustainability. The impact of political considerations and competitiveness as seen in other state situations is not the case here. This hence is a positive strength observed here. Yet another positive strength is in how SIA is seen to be pioneering in some aspects. For instance, in the case of noise generation because of aircrafts, SIA has focused on reducing noise. Yet an alternative view point could be presented. It could be said that financial penalties some airports impose with respect to noise generation could be the reason SIA invested in it.

论文范文代写论文-新加坡航空公司的可持续发展问题就为留学生分享到这里。中国留学生英语论文不会写,可以找新西兰高阶论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,此平台帮助解决中国留学生的论文写作难题,为留学生提供essay代写、assignment代写等论文服务,保证论文原创,并使用权威的抄袭检测系统,让留学生们轻松应对论文写作并创作出专属个人的优秀论文!