“The authors here make use of the approach used in previous research to understand the corruption equation. The work of Mungiu-Pippidi is being used here. Corruption is attended to and understood here as being derived from different social equations a context and is seen as a collective action where the case for the common good is lost. The authors address a research gap in their work which is that of the arguments that has been frequently overlooked in the literature on corruption, which has often assumed that principals are interested in avoiding and penalizing, malfeasance by agents. To understand why corruption happens, we need to examine the attitudes of principals, which inform the use (or lack thereof) of formal sanctions and incentives” (p.2).
The authors have seemingly adopted a Spanish case study. The case study highlights how the use of more local and informal institutions in the context of urban planning would actually be more efficient when it comes to implementing the rules of urban planning. It is interesting that authors present a viewpoint on urban planning that actually seems to derive more from the informal rule making rather than from that of formal rules and systems.
This work is once again similar to the work presented earlier. It addresses the issues of urban planning in Spain. Authors take up some opportunities versus deterrents approach towards understanding the corruption issues in urban planning. Now the article attempts to understand how there are opportunities and deterrents at the local level. Now it is necessary to understand these elements at the local levels as it would then enable understanding in a more generalized way from a more specific way. Now the cause study of Lanzarote has been used. The city was selected because of how it has been connected with many scandals from the past. Some of the scandals involve businessmen, civil servants and politicians.
The case selected by the author is one where there are touristic complexes build for use in the municipality of Yaiza and the Teguise. Now corruption in the island is contradictory to the policies that are present on the island as the land itself has been recognized for urban and land planning measures internationally. However, the case study indicates that this does not solve the crime equation. Compared to most other places around the same coastal line, it is mentioned that this area has an increased crime rate than others.