印度尼西亚是东南亚最大的国家，拥有2.55亿人口。尽管实施了千年发展目标，但该国约30%的人口缺乏安全用水，1亿多居民缺乏卫生设施(印度尼西亚水危机-印度尼西亚清洁水| Water.org, 2017)。这增加了农业、抵抗疾病爆发、负担得起的儿童保育、食品质量以及由于缺乏清洁水而出现的许多相互关联的问题。水及其利用被认为是个人的一项基本权利，不论其背景和来源如何。随着全球化显露出其阴暗面，加之不受控制的移民和人口增长，水资源短缺和洁净水的供应正成为一种奢侈。这篇新西兰代写-印度尼西亚的水资源短缺为留学生们分析如下：
The lack of piped water is leading Indonesians to use ground water, septic tanks, river water and wells for daily chores, and most of these sources have become contaminated. The residents blame the government for lack of provisions, and the government blames the residents for polluting rivers with house refuge and open excretion (Vaessen, 2017). This is a serious issue with no liable entity as the size of the problem is just getting ugly. Although Indonesia has made commendable progress in its GDP figures, growing at a rate of 6% year on year, the infrastructure remains deficient as more sophisticated demands and problems keep arising. The urgent need for the government is massive aid that shall unfold a framework for implementing welfare programs targeting water availability to all, finding new sources of clean water, setting up desalination plants and extracting sea water etc. These programs are required to be implemented on an urgent basis, because if they are delayed massive disease outbreak is highly likely across the region. For example, in the Muara Angke coastal region in Jakarta, people get used to bathing outdoors with murky water owing to the lack of piped water availability (Jakarta’s slums struggle with sanitation, 2010). The residents, living on $2 US dollars a day, are forced to buy water at $1 dollar a day for cooking and drinking. In addition, increasing scarcity of ground water owing to overreliance on it and illegal extraction across the region and in Jakarta makes life more difficult (Sherwell, 2016). Water pipeline is something that could make things more comfortable for the residents.
Residents in Kulang village Timor Tengah Utara and Timor Tengah Selatan are forced to use fecal-contaminated water owing to extended draught and the drying up of water channels (Fointuna, 2012). The conditions of the residents was so serious that they were forced to use whatever water sources they received from anywhere, of which only dirty and contaminated water was easiest available. There is no way possible to resist, by most means, the coming of diseases that can become an epidemic. Childcare suffers with the lowest quality of water available, and as mothers’ health remains constantly ill, it affects child growth on a large scale. As per a survey by National Geographic involving major nations without proper water access, Indonesia still has 30 million people without safe drinking water, safe largely in terms of fecal-contamination (See Where Access to Clean Water Is Getting Better—and Worse, 2016). Indonesian government is challenged dually to expedite the growth of its economy, and provide the basic necessities of water, healthcare and education to its residents, mostly to the ones who live in distant and difficult-to-access islands.
The rampant illegal dumping of industrial waste has converted the beautiful Citarium River into the worst river in the world, and the most polluted. Industrial waste is continuously dumped without restrictions or monitoring, even when 35 million people rely on the river for drinking and personal use (Glennie & Cox, 2014). This raises the question of governance and the responsibilities of the local authorities to regulate dumping and penalising the culprits. This further raises the issue of justice for the residents when they are forcedly left with no option but to drink contaminated water.
The issue of water scarcity and water contamination in Indonesian cities and villages are concerned with the fundamental rights of the residents, and this is withheld in part by the ones like businesses and corrupt government officials. The Red Cross Society needs to build an immediate presence in Indonesia and work towards water cleanliness and improvised sanitation.