运用多种理论模型探讨了观众与制片人之间的关系。皮下理论模型认为媒体向社会注入意见和感知(Livingstone, 2013)。这是建立在行为主义理论基础上的。这一理论支持被动受众的概念，在现代被认为是过时的。在此基础上发展了两步模型理论。在这一理论中，认为每一个同龄人群体或社会中的意见领袖塑造了媒体信息(Livingstone, 2013)。这是皮下注射针理论的扩展版本。这些理论被认为是被动的受众理论。有很多实验表明，观众倾向于模仿媒体内容中的图像。然而，目前的情况并非如此。被动受众理论已经过时，在当代已不具有现实意义。社交媒体的发展确保了现代社会没有被动受众的痕迹。
主动受众概念或受众的主动参与最初是由使用与满足理论(Livingstone, 2013)提出的。在这个模型中，受众被认为是媒体内容的塑造者，而媒体在形成社会认知方面发挥着重要作用。在使用和满足理论中，受众自己决定需求。接受理论还揭示了受众对媒体内容塑造的积极参与。接受理论也发现了社交媒体意识形态的关联性。权力不在于媒体内容的生产者，而在于受众控制媒体内容。这一理论赋予观众更多的自主性和重要性。这种使用和满足理论在现代仍然具有相关性(Livingstone, 2013)。活跃的受众利用媒体来转移自己的注意力，收集信息，寻找乐趣，并比较不同媒体上展示的生活方式。
Relationship between audience and producer has been discussed using many theoretical models. Hypodermic theoretical model suggests that media injects opinions and perceptions into society (Livingstone, 2013). This was developed based on the behaviourism theories. This theory supported the notions of passive audience and is considered to be archaic in the modern time. Subsequent to this theory Two-step model theory was developed. In this theory it was considered that the opinion leaders in each peer group or society shaped media information (Livingstone, 2013). This is an extended version of the hypodermic needle theory. These theories are considered to be passive audience theory. There were a number of experiments that showcased the audiences tended to imitate the imageries shown in the media content. Nevertheless this is not the case in the current times. Passive audience theory has become obsolete and does not hold relevance in the contemporary era. Social media development has ensured that there are no traces of passive audiences in the modern times.
Active audience notion or active participation of the audience was initially promulgated by the Use and Gratification theory (Livingstone, 2013). In this model the audiences were considered to shape media content whilst the media played an important role in forming societal perception. In the use and gratification theory the audience dictates requirements themselves. Reception theory also promulgates Active audience participation in shaping media content. Reception theory also finds relevance in social media ideology. Power does not lie with the producers of the media content rather the audience control the media content. There is more autonomy and importance given to the audience in this theory. This use and gratification theory still has relevance in the modern times (Livingstone, 2013). Active audience utilizes media to divert themselves, gather information, for pleasure and also to compare lifestyles showcased on the different mediums.