Willis adopts a critical ethnographic’ methodology to understand the reasons for the behaviour of the people. The actions of the people stem from their ideology and perceived notions. As people come from different societies, this difference in perception is inevitable. The people form decisions based on their knowledge and the system of morality that they are used to. Willis attributes this ideology as ‘field of play’. In this paradigm, there are two concepts that are found to be prevalent. It is the penetration and limitation concept (Willis, 1977). There is an innate pressure for the people to choose the path of manual labour in the lower economic group. The people consider their profession to be a positive work and other profession to be demeaning. Penetration and limitations are the two ideologies that make the person and the socio-economic group develop preference. Penetration is the ideology that is used to provoke impulses that are more collectivistic (Willis, 1977). The people are more attuned towards the rights of other people. Apart from this, the lads are made to do grunt work from a very early age. They are forced into manual labour and are told by the people around them that they cannot amount to anything more than manual labour.
Limitation is meant to ensure that there are impediments to the development or expression of impulses. In the case of academic environment, there are strong individualistic cultures that are promoted to the people. In this field of play counter-school, culture emerges and the people question or damn the individualistic notion of the dominant structures of the society they live in (Willis, 1977). Counter culture espouses the immediate gratification and solidarity of the groups that are rooted in the status hierarchy. In this, the wisdom of the individuals is replaced by the absurd ideologies in the society. There is the burden of conformism and conventional achievements that are thrust upon the students in the society.
This research considers the Marxist point of view. In the Marxist point of view, the primary relationship between the social reproduction and the subordinate agreements of the prevalent ideology is analyzed. From the analysis, the capitalistic owners are the real beneficiaries of this system. There is creation of the mental-manual division. This is positive affirmation to the manual labour in the society. It is essential for the stability of the capitalism as any inversion in the ideological order would stem to giving the people power. There is opposition that is created through coercion in this process. Capitalism does not generate the inversion of the existing ideology. It generates profits from the process of capitalism (Reay, 1998). There is the innate ideology of gendered notion that is prevalent in the society. This has been espoused in the gendered identity dynamics of the situation. This has been explained in the following chapter.
There is prevalence of the subduing of the women and creation of the ideology that the women are innately weaker than men. There are a number of ideologies that are professed in this system (Hartmann, 1979). Women are treated as weaker gender. The men who undertake manual labour are considered to be more suitable person for the society. The boys are told at a young age that they are supposed to behave in a certain way and need to take up manual labour if they want to fit into the main stream society. The ‘lads’ who choose any other line of white collar jobs are treated as someone who is feminine or inferior to the masculine men in the working-class society (Ferree, 1980). These values are thrust as conventional wisdom into the society.
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