If the shear resistance of the building is not kept in accordance, great economic costs can be encountered in the form of the lost lives, assets, the investment on building construction and the wasted hours of labour work.
In order to deal with the requirement of high strength structures, there is a set of building codes known as Uniform Building Codes (UBC) which defines the objectives set against the probable hazards that must be set for the safety of life. However, UBC does not encourage the utilization of a building after it has been through some natural disaster.
The most likely to occur damage and deterioration that building gets subjected to are from seismic and hurricane affects. This likelihood has revealed the demand for improved structures with improved designs not only for new buildings but also for the existing structures whereby retrofitting technique can be employed. (Adedeji, 2011)
Before the introduction of UBC, the construction of conventional buildings did not pay much attention to the resistance that was needed against the shear forces. Hence, the structures were composted of negligible shear resistance forces and minute stand back against the resultant uplift from foundations, etc. (Adedeji, 2011)
The structural setting of the timber walls was such that they were made up of vertical frame members only with horizontal members attached across via nails. The post improvement after this stage made use of diagonal wooden braces or partial-planking in a diagonal direction in the walls with shingles or outer layer to protect against the weather conditions and also to serve the finishing purpose. (Adedeji, 2011)
As we have entered into the new era, the know-how of the significance of the building performance under extreme conditions is being emphasized and steps are being taken to enhance the properties of the structure. This has also been made compulsory by UBC which now realizes the significance of it. (Adedeji, 2011)
The performance of the buildings in earthquake situation is in a continuous state of improvement and one such step is the employment of shape memory alloy as reinforcement in shear timber walls.