essay代写-葡萄酒和烹饪旅游的发展

essay代写-葡萄酒和烹饪旅游的发展。旅游业的发展与游客在那个特定的参观地点的最佳体验和提供给他们一些独特的优良的好客。游客在游览期间热衷于品尝新的菜肴和经典的饮料。在这一点上,葡萄酒和烹饪旅游是一个不断扩大和创造财富的行业。以美食旅游为基础的电视节目、美食杂志、博客和案例研究,已经出现了一部分旅行者,他们在寻找一种独特的旅游方式,而美食在其中占据了核心地位。烹饪旅游每年都呈指数级增长,人们对美食频道、博客、纪录片、旅行美食体验的兴趣也在稳步增长。Sharples(2003)的贡献在于提供了食物旅游的定义,并将其可操作化,还基于人们对食物作为旅游激励因素的兴趣程度,将不同类型的食物旅游概念化。

I and my two college X, Y attended the Husker Dialogues event on 13 Sep, 2016 and met with professor Dr. Gwendolyn M in between 4:45 PM and 5:00 PM. After the registration at the event we were given specific instructions by the event organizer regarding the event in order to make sure the entire event is organized in better way. We all stayed at the event from 4:45 PM to 8:55 PM. The event was quite interesting and well enjoyed the same. According to our view, the event was quite interesting, meaningful and knowledgeable. This kind of events are important in order to understand the university culture, learning environment, about staff, faculty and existing students.
The main purpose of the event was to have small group discussion in to order understand how to increase incoming students in the university. We discussed about change in personality, understanding, culture, diversity in university, learning environment, engagement among various students and faculty and staff, available resources, and more. The debate went for quite long with more meaningful conversations to provide insights about to attract more new students at the university. The entire focus was on diversity and inclusion in the debate to make the campus more diverse and inclusive by inviting more diverse culture students from various countries or location to the university.
Yes, the college agenda was very clear and the expected outcome was great as all the attendees were seemed to be quite satisfactory and aware to the group discussion topic. We think that this kind of events are important to make aware the students, staff and faculty to attract more students. These events help in building the great brand and culture among the others about the university so that a right and meaningful message goes to all. The most important message that all the staffs, faculty and students are committed towards their goal and always helpful for any kind for activities in the campus.
To attract more crowd for this group discussion, the event was marketed and communicated through various modes for example social media, blogs, articles, posters in campus, emails to student parents, advertisement in local newspapers, university notice board and other university student groups. The social media, university notice board and local newspaper were the effective medium of communication for the event. These mode of communication for the event helped in gathering crowd of more than 500 people. The event was helpful in convincing all these audience as expected.

Wine and culinary tourism is a vital component of the tourism experience (McKercher et al., 2008). Constant surveying the leisure culinary travellers and conducting research on their opinions is the helpful method. Interactive methods like social media, blogging and personal interactions also workout for the strategy development.

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ps代写-音乐工程师诺曼·佩蒂的故事

ps代写-音乐工程师诺曼·佩蒂的故事,拥有所有至关重要的技能是很重要的。他是一位独立的工程师。他有倾听的能力和注意细节的能力。这帮助他运用了独特的录音方法。他是50年代末最有争议的摇滚制作人之一,他的名字将永远与巴迪·霍利联系在一起。在他位于新墨西哥州克洛维斯人(Clovis)的建筑里,他制作了霍莉的许多顶级唱片,并与人合作创作了许多霍莉的作品。他还亲自录制唱片,并在60年代与为霍利之声(Holly sound)表演的表演者们取得了一些值得注意的成就。

However, he would never approach the greatness or sales of the music he made with Holly (Crosby, 2008). All the recordings by Petty were in mono. Petty’s initial recorder was an Ampex 401, then it was Ampex 300. These two recorded mono to “1/4” tape.
Petty knew that recording with electronic guitar can be done inside a room only when the AMP is very high. However, it can still listen to a sharp sound created by the instrument. This song had shown that the music was real. He also reported body waiting rather than use of any terms. Many a times, this was done because he felt that the recording better. He focused on reducing the hissing sound of the tape and thus improving the quality of the track. Petty brought a revolution to the recording performances. Digital multitrack tape machines which are known as machines started for the recording studios and introduced to the radio shows were an alternate to analogy mechanisms.
Both the engineers and sound recorders had to utilise their listening skills to distinguish the pure tones and random noises and to estimate the frequencies of sound. There were various complex and simple sounds which the judgement had to be made. There was requirement of technical capabilities so that the respective changes could be made and the quality of sound would be improved. There had to be professionalism in carrying out their tasks so that the recordings are synchronised with the performance (Brackett, 2000). Since there had been a lot of technical advancements, these artistic directions to be given by the producers were improved. The sound engineers are responsible for making suitable choices of sounds by listening to the request of the musicians. Thus, the key skills required for any ideal producer would be communication and interpersonal skills. The outcome of all the efforts is dependent on capability of the sound producer to know, rate and change a range of parameters of music performances, the compositions and schedules along with the quality of the sound. It is important that record producers systematically look for diverse technical and artistic prospects by critically listening and experimenting. It is similar to the performers in the way they practice regularly with their instruments. By doing so, they can create flexibility which is required for proposing different choices which are most apt for every situation. There had to be critical listening skills in order that the adaptation is there towards diverse musical genres. Not only there is the need for adjustments, but also there is a need to learn the way of using new tools. Every time these engineers worked in a different location or a different situation. With the changes in the technology, they had to adjust accordingly, thus they are required to process the flexibility skills.

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essay代写-资料来源的引用

essay代写-资料来源的引用。在选择句子来源时,有必要考虑两个不同的来源。首先,选择的来源必须有真实的主观变化。主观的差异是必要的,以确定如何不同的两个来源在修辞和来源如何利用事实和其他。第一个选择的来源是非学术性的文章。所选的两个资料来源,重点是如何吸引不同文化的人。要构造出适用于所有文化的修辞确实是不可能的。然而,在遵循学术文章这样的严格惯例的情况下,向受众推送的信息可以以一种文化中立的方式呈现。

Secondary sources used are from the company reports of Facebook. The company report data from the year 2016 is shared here. The report reflects statistics on the number of senior leaders hired the Black people, the Hispanic’s and women in total. The secondary source used however is not cited as a reference and the author has not added a reference list either. The report can be looked up easily online, but still the lack of referencing reduces the quality of the work. In the case of the western cultural standpoint, looking up Facebook and its annual reports would be an appropriate thing to cross check facts. However, it could so happen that some cultures would be more trusting and could take up statistics on account of it published in the Forbes.
The work of Nazir (2005) is one that the research work makes use of secondary references which are detailed academic references. This form of referencing makes the work more subjective. In any cultural context, the work could still be handled with less bias and hence could be said to be more appropriate for a diverse set of audience as well. Compared to the first source, the second source furthermore is academically inclined in its research subject undertaking. Therefore, it does aim to cater to a wider expanse in audience.
In choosing sources for the sentence task, it was necessary to consider two different sources. Firstly, the source selected had to have real subjective variations. The subjective variations are necessary to identify how the two sources differ in rhetoric and how the sources made use of facts and others. The first source selected was a non-academic article. The article did not follow the conventions used in an academic source; however, the article did make use of rhetoric style that was effective to state its argument. It was observed that more than the academic article, Schmidt (2017) article was more direct in making its point. The source was mainly selected because it was succinct and to the point. It presented the work on cultural-fit, by directly attacking the concept and presenting an argument on why it was not appropriate with a direct quote. On the other hand, the academic work of Nazir (2005) is seen to follow norms and conventions that follow a more subjective setting. While the first source could be read by everybody, people from different cultures will take it with a pinch of salt. They would not trust it completely. Nevertheless, the second academic article in being more subjective and defined within academic norms would be more persuasive content for people of different
The two sources selected were discussed with emphasis on how it would appeal to people of different cultures. It would really be impossible to structure rhetoric that applies to all cultures. However, in following strict conventions like the academic article, the message to be pushed to audiences could be presented in a culture neutral way.

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代写-可持续性管理中的企业社会责任和道德规范

代写-可持续性管理中的企业社会责任和道德规范。在可持续性管理中,为了在这一追求中有更大的责任和纪律,有必要为公司制定一个企业社会责任框架。可持续性指导方针和遵从性监控对组织至关重要,因为它显示了组织对其外部环境和所处社区的关注程度(Desselle, Zgarrick和Alston, 2016)。在对这些因素的管理中,管理者有必要在可持续管理中采取综合的方式。例如,在澳大利亚的背景下,环境变化和社会变化是相互联系的,因此企业社会责任的方法必须是综合的。

CSR is understood as a voluntary contribution that a company makes towards sustainable development of the company. CSR needs to the three pillars of sustainability which are the environmental aspects, the economic aspects and the people aspects. CSR can be managed by following the regulatory requirements in CSR. However, most organizations want to do something beyond the basic statutory requirements and CSR policy formulations for different company hence vary. Despite the differences, the broader goals in the context of CSR are not unchanged. It works to manage externalities, do charity, or simply focuses on how to conduct the business ethically without concerns for sustainability. CSR guidelines are used for ethics understanding in the organization and hence most CSR guidelines have the laws on ethics that are to be followed in the workplace.
“Long term success can only be achieved by operating responsibility with due regard for people, nature and the environment. Simplicity, consistency and responsibility have always been our three defining core values. As an expanding discount retailer, our actions have international influence in different markets” (Aldi Australia, 2017, para. 3). Aldi understands the need for a strong CSR, especially in the context that they operate internationally. This shows a strong awareness of Aldi with respect to CSR. Aldi Australia follows a set of corporate social responsibility principles and these CSR principles are represented as a code CR. CR is followed strictly within the organization and by doing so, Aldi ensures that CSR and ethics become an integral part of its work patterns. The CR principles applied to all stakeholders from employees, business partners to suppliers that work with Aldi.
The Hierarchy model of CSR as presented below can be used to understand the sustainability initiative, CSR and ethics of the company. According to this, model companies follow a series of elements when they aspire to be a corporate citizen. Companies at their most basic ensure that they are profitable, as this is an economic responsibility. The market profit margin for Aldi is around 5.2 per cent compared to 4.7 per cent of Cole. While Woolworths has a profit margin of 7 per cent, Aldi still does not have to worry because of its steady moderate profit margin. The second component in the CSR model is the legal responsibility, and then the ethical responsibilities.
Now as evident in the CSR report of Aldi’s, the Aldi South Group publishes the CR guidelines as a legal notice to all the unit’s operating under it. Therefore, the CSR responsibilities are not just understood as ethical responsibilities, but they have legal weightage. Finally, the last rung in the hierarchy is Philanthropic responsibilities, which meaning the company must contribute to the community that they are operating.

The Aldi community shows through practice that they adhere to this final expectation, and hence in terms of sustainability and CSR initiatives, they are operating in corporate citizenship mode.

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新西兰essay代写文献格式标注方法

新西兰essay是每个留学生必须面对的一项论文作业,在写作时最重要的就是essay的论文结构和文献格式标注,由于Essay理论性较强,最好有相关例子来支撑论点,所以essay写作有时需要大量的文献引用, 那么接下来新西兰高阶论文代写AdvancedThesis辅导老师就为留学生们注重讲解下essay代写文献格式的标注方法。

首先就是留学生们要安排好essay论文结构,而essay不似留学毕业论文那样复杂,一般包括四个部分:introduction 、Main body、conclusion、Reference。

Introduction 包括Topic的背景介绍和文章主要解决的主要问题,新西兰高阶论文代写AdvancedThesis辅导老师提醒留学生一般是占字数的10%左右,相当于摘要的一部分。

而Main body作为论文的最主要部分,占字数的80%左右,如果题目中作了具体要求,就要根据题目提到的几个方面来逐一讨论,如果没有就要自己构思,但必须要有逻辑性。主体部分是最能体现学生的知识、学识和见识,还有思维逻辑能力的。

Conclusion方面字数大概是10%,在一段在文章内容的结尾部分,但是也是文章的最核心,把主要观点用一两句话概括出来。

Reference这一部分是导师比较看重的,因此要很注意,该部分一般包括in-text reference(文章里的reference)和reference list(文章后的reference).文章有要求的就根据要求把握,没有说明的就按照每千字3-4个操作。

留学生们在安排好这些论文结构后,对于文献格式标注方法需要特别注意了,一般文献格式标注方法常见的有以下以几种:

1.Harvard referencing system 哈佛文献标记系统

2.CMS: Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) 芝加哥写作和文献标注系统

3.APA Style:American Psychological Association. 美国心理学会写作和文献标记办法

4.AMA:American Medical Association 美国医学会文献标注系统

5.MLA:现代语言学会写作和文献标注系统

综上所述就是essay代写文献格式的标注方法,留学生essay论文写作提升,可以找新西兰论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构,新西兰论文代写Advanced Thesis平台机构经过多年的经营与磨砺,已经发展成为一家专业的新西兰论文代写平台机构,而且论文代写价格公平合理,擅长写作科目广泛,有硕士论文代写、新西兰代写、essay代写、report代写、assignment代写等论文服务,良好的口碑和信誉、丰富的论文代写经验值得留学生选择和信赖!

論文代寫價錢-領導變革戰略理論

論文代寫價錢-領導變革戰略理論。專制的領導模式賦予最高管理層很大的權力。在這個體系中,個人員工沒有受益。這種領導模式是批評最多的,因為在這個系統中沒有員工自由的地方(Garcia-Morales et al., 2012)。這就沒有創造創造的空間,員工的創新在這個系統中被停止。韋伯提出的層次模型不考慮個體情緒。本系統只考慮員工的技術資格。這種模式作為一種反對裙帶關系的工具出現。

Autocratic leadership model bestows a lot of power to the top management. Individual employees are not benefitted in this system. This leadership model is the most critiqued model as there is no place for employee freedom in this system (García-Morales et al., 2012). This creates no place for creativity, innovation from employees are halted in this system. Hierarchical model proposed by Max Weber does not factor in individual emotions. Only technical qualifications of the employees are considered in this system. This model emerged as a tool against nepotism (García-Morales et al., 2012). It was found to be useful in the past. This pyramidal structure of leadership is not able to meet the requirements of the new age. Behavioural theory of leadership model does not look into the innate traits of the leaders (García-Morales et al., 2012). Rather they look into the actions of the leaders in the new era. Actions of the leaders should be based on the requirements and the modern outlook of the people. There is a need to balance between targets and evolving employees. There is an emergence of transformational leadership model. Dynamic fluid models of leadership are needed in order to ensure that there is progress in productivity (García-Morales et al., 2012). This will also increase employee morale. Strategic theory of leadership suggests that the top-level management should determine the vision and all employees of the organization should work towards the common vision. For this purpose a number of self-organizing teams should work together at different levels and ensure that the objectives of the company are met (García-Morales et al., 2012). In this system the individual team leaders try to bring out the potential of the employees in order to ensure that maximum productivity is acquire (Wilson, 2014). This system takes into account the potential of the employees and tries to develop value creation models that enable employees to express their views (Spillane, 2012). In the Chinese context there is a higher level of autonomy that has been observed but the new age leaders are more adept to embracing change. Form this new emerging leadership will also benefit the Chinese companies (Parker, Holesgrove, & Pathak, 2015). This does not mean to completely move away from traditional leadership style. It is recommended to include more employee ideas and vision. Find ways to make the employee bring out their maximum potential in order to increase productivity. The Chinese companies can follow this model.
Currently it has been observed that the Chinese CEO is found to be more creative and embark on a number of new challenges and innovations (Parker, Holesgrove, & Pathak, 2015). However there is reduced focus on reverse engineering and more focus is diverted to building unique products.
From this the importance of listening and develop to employees can be understood. Beijing ECCO can develop a more Strategic centred leadership in order to address emerging needs. It cannot be completely adopted but some factors like employee inclusiveness will help the company (Wang, Chontawan, & Nantsupawat, 2012). It is a well-known fact that the Chinese companies can produce results much faster than the other countries in terms of production and logistics management (Chang, Bai, & Li, 2015). They have a number of capabilities that has enabled the company like other Chinese companies to develop and grow. Incorporating more dynamic principles and creating a situation of inclusiveness can generate more productivity from the Strategic business model (Chang, Bai, & Li, 2015). It has been predicted that the disposable income of the people will become higher in future economies. The needs for retail products will be on the increase there is an emergence of new culture of people. In order to cater to the new emerging needs the company needs to develop strategic leadership model. This will enable flexibility and improve innovation. This will also aid for the growth of the company in future.

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essay代写-基督教青年设计的绿色屋顶

essay代写-基督教青年设计的绿色屋顶。一个广泛的绿色屋顶不仅仅是一个环保行动,它是一个重要的选择,增加了建筑的功能,扩展了它的空间,使它更有用的其他功能和活动。基督教青年会建筑的大面积绿色屋顶将融合美学、功能,并进一步发挥建筑功能,为环境创造一个更健康的空间。根据调查结果,大面积的绿色屋顶将是基督教青年会中心的一个很好的选择。绿色屋顶所支撑的植被较低,土壤替代介质会影响植被的形态。对滤布、排水和绝缘参数进行了研究。分析了绿色屋面的保水性能和水力学性能,并进行了造价分析。

The extensive green roof being designed for the YMCA will have as its main component such as a lightweight growing medium. This would have a thickness of anywhere between 3- 6 inches. The substrate growing medium used differs in thickness based on the plants used, for instance, succulents the 3-6 inches is adequate (Martens et al, 2008). The ground level low component plants used as of the succulent variety. Many different succulents are selected here. The rooftop selected is non-sloping in nature so the watering arrangement has to be made accordingly. Adequate amount of anti weed elements has to be added into the substrate where it is necessary to borderline the rooftop since tree seedlings and other weeds that the extensive green garden should not support would be brought in by birds and the wind. The tree seedlings would not have root space to grow, the root inhibitor might not work on it (Martens et al, 2008). This could lead to the roots pressing against the green roof layers. The weeds if allowed to grow unchecked could lead to nutrient loss. The weeds and the actual succulents being raised in the green roof might not survive and might take much of the water and nutrients supplied (Bass et al, 2002).

There will be loads and stresses on the Green roof and the building on which the green roof is being installed. Given that the building is being constructed in Toronto, Ontario the main elements that might need to be considered with respect to the weather are water, rain and snow loads. Some key points to be understood here are that:
Despite the loads and stresses, usually there is no need for any form of special requirement here for the load bearing structure. The load bearing capacity of the existing roof deck and the rigidity and deformity levels will however need to be understood.
Structural strength needs to be considered with respect to the deflection resistance for the mass of soil and the water draining layers. The water holding capacity of the materials that are used will be a big parameter here as this would change the stress induced on the roof.
Where a new roof is used, it is usually advisable that there be some form of a reinforced concrete slab

A hydrologic mockup will be done with the data collected on the weather elements in Toronto. The feasibility of having a year around succulent vegetation on the green roof will be analyzed. While acknowledging that it may be difficult to support the succulents in the case of snow during winter season, the report attempts to present recommendations on how YMCA could invest in some low cost infrastructure that would protect the vegetation even in the winter. Case study data from North American Green roof providers are used to support this standpoint.
It is necessary to do a hydrological profiling as all green roofs might not be created equal. The hydrological profile will vary based on the roofs, the thermal profile in the location and more. Increasing soil root density or the soil biodata will affect the amount of water intake and also the substrate retention characteristics. There are also microstructures in the substrate which will cause changes based on their pores irregularities and more.

The costs involved in the overall construction of the extensive green roof and the itemized cost for all the components are included in this report. Costs of contractor, wages and subcontractors that might be required and maintenance that would be needed are also presented.

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essay代写-联邦储备系统

essay代写-联邦储备系统。大多数国家都有某种形式的中央银行,作为一国金融事务的关键权威。这些银行的主要职责包括实施货币政策,保持增长和就业的一致性,促进国家金融体系的稳定,管理货币生产和发行,并通过发布经济统计数据,从经济方面了解人们的总体状况。本报告重点介绍各种责任紧随其后的是一个中央银行,联邦储备系统的美国银行的货币政策工具实现的使用和系统内在所扮演的角色是作为最后贷款人。

Central banks have a wider responsibilities set ranging from overseeing the policy of monetary purpose and to implement particular goals such as stability of the currency, lower rates of inflation and complete employment. The Federal Reserve System is the banking Institute selected with the aim of discussion in this report (Hester, 2016). The discussion lays focus on central banks when looked at broad perspective and it looks at the Federal Reserve System more closely from a narrowed perspective. The scope of this report lies in discussing the central banks, their roles and functions, Federal Reserve System, its structure, its tools for monetary policy and lender of last resort.
Federal Reserve System: Discussion
Central Bank Definition
Central bank according to Martin et al, (2013), is a national bank which helps in providing finance and banking related services for the government and commercial banking system of a nation along with implementation of monetary policy of the government and currency issuing (Calmiris et al., 2015). From this perspective, it is an entity responsible to oversee a nation’s monetary system. Generally, central banks also issue currencies, government bank functions, regulate system for crediting, oversee the banks commercially, manage reserves for exchange and act as a LOLR (Lender of last resort).
In the United States, Federal Reserve System serves as the central bank of the nation which was created through Congress’s act. This systems furthermore consists of 7 Board of governor members with Washington, D.C. headquarters and 12 banks from Reserve systems locating across main cities of U.S.
Lender of Last resort function
“Lender of last resort” is liquidity discretionary provision to a financial institute through the system of central banking as a reaction to adverse shocks that can cause abnormal enhancement in demand towards liquidity that cannot be met from a substitute source (Gorton et al., 2013). This implies that the lender is central bank of last resort when there is no other manner to enhance liquidity supply whenever an inadequacy exists. This function has been performed through several central banks since the starting of 20th century. The key here is preventing finance panics and banking runs spread from a bank to the other because of liquidity inadequacy.
From the perspective of this report, it is evident that Federal Reserve System as a central bank has key role to play across U.S. I learned that not only are the functions diverse but also are the operations and risks involved. The tools used under monetary policy for the company are also highly specialized and offer much towards economic growth of the nation. Even though the lender of last resort followed and applied by the central bank are highly criticized but the system has offered much to those seeking help in the form of borrowing.

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essay代写-宏观经济消息对波动溢出效应的影响

经济新闻的发布可以影响市场数据的变化和投资者的理解。这种影响并不完全是一种新现象,而且是1987年多年来一直在研究的一种现象,当时观察到,美国股市的崩盘被认为对波动性有很强的影响。波动性的传导非常强。对新闻公告的批评性审查将在减少影响方面发挥重要作用。Jiang等人(2010)认为,这种对经济新闻公告及其影响的批判性理解在当今时代将具有重要意义。从更大的意义上,人们可以理解经济消息发布带来的波动性冲击,以及它们如何在美国和欧洲股市传播。通过这样的分析,可以更好地回答新闻公告和投资者与企业的问题所带来的波动联系(Huang, 2015)。一个重要的问题是,要理解在宣布日和非宣布日的溢出效应是更高。本研究旨在了解essay代写-宏观经济消息对波动溢出效应的影响.

Economic news announcements have an impact on volatility indices and spillovers. Research results show that news announcements to a partial extent would have an impact on volatility spillovers and sometimes announcement related surprises could result in greater magnitude of these spillovers. Jiang et al. (2010) established that even when effect of news announcements is controlled, a significant volatility linkage exists. This suggests the need to understand how news announcements would impact different aspects of implied volatility indices such as VIX VXO and VXN.
Academicians and practitioners have both attempted to answer this question because of the following reasons. Firstly, understanding volatility spillovers are not just about understanding the spillover, it is about understanding how markets will be integrated. Stock market integration occurs across regions. Stock market and impact are not defined within regions but are in fact defined across regions. How markets can be integrated within regions or integrated across regions can be better understood by studying the volatility impact affected through economic news announcements, both surprise and scheduled. Transmission of volatility shock hence provides insight on how well these markets are integrated. The transmission of shocks can be traced back and information can be obtained (Bekaert et al., 2005).
The second main reason for understanding impact of volatility shock transmission is to know how international portfolio will be affected. International financial portfolios have to be maintained in the proper manner and no risks to such portfolios would be entertained as investors would stand to lose much in such uncertainty. They have to prepare for risks. Risk management considers changes in stock market, and news announcements are undeniably an important influencing factor. In this context, it becomes necessary to study how volatility shocks are created because of the news impact. Opportunities are created for risk analysts. Once the risk analyst is able to understand how volatility is transmitted in the market, they can understand the systematic transmission and impact factors (Cakan et al., 2015). Then based on how the scheduled news transmission or surprise news transmissions worked, they would be able to present trading strategies to their customers. Profitable trading strategies are preferred by people when they work with stock analysts (Donders and Vorst, 1996; Ederington and Lee, 1996). The third reason presented by Jiang et al. (2010) is that such analysis of volatility spillovers and news announcements will throw light on the fundamentals of the situation and the volatility contagion. A volatility contagion and its definition differs across research works but it has been observed that was some consensus. Contagion is understood as a transmission of shocks in an unanticipated manner. Sometimes normal spillover effects exist and at times interdependencies in the transmission of shock because of integrated markets will also exist in parallel. In the aftermath of a news effect, the contagion is differentiated from normal issues because it is not a normal interdependency. Therefore, according to Jiang et al. (2010) it would be easy to identify and segregate the contagion effects when studies are conducted on understanding the transmissions. The final reason to study spillover effects and their relation to macroeconomic news announcements is because of how it informs market efficiency.

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essay代写-现金流和权责发生制的持续性

财务会计是对企业或公司当前财务状况的清晰描述。除了目前的财务状况,还借助财务会计对公司未来的前景进行了预测。现在在财务会计过程中,在评估公司股票的未来表现时,存在着哪些财务因素能够更好的预测公司股票未来表现的问题。为了理解未来现金流总额,人们使用了不同的估值模型,而这种预测几乎总是使用过去的会计数字。在这些预测中,一个重要的问题是,过去对未来收益或现金流的现金流预测,是否优于利用权责发生制进行的预测。本研究的目的是基于essay代写-现金流和权责发生制的持续性,以及它们是否可以用来预测未来的收益,来分析收益的组成部分,如现金流和权责发生制。比较评估是为了了解现金流和权责发生制如何有助于预测未来收益。

To assess the estimated persistence of cash flows and accruals by critical discussion of existing research work findings.
To determine whether earnings components like cash flow and accruals are better at predicting performance compared to other financial elements and also which of the two is comparatively better when assessed against one another.
To do a complete assessment using US sample data from Compustat for a time period of 10 years.
Research Significance
The research findings will be useful in the context of informing financial analysts. Financial analysis will improve heavily when there is detailed cash flow information. The significance of cash flow accounting and accrual based practices have to be understood based on persistence and prediction capabilities in order to inform analysts. A benchmark study is needed to show evidence on why policy makers have to formulate better line of reporting with respect to cash flows. Furthermore, where there are choices of earnings component to be used in prediction, the analysts must have an idea of what to choose based on the context. It is also important to understand how accruals and cash flows need to be linked in order to assess earning quality.
Literature Review
Cash Flow and Accrual Accounting
Accrual is an earning component that could be useful for predicting future cash flows. Accrued expenses are incurred on the balance sheet date. However, they are recorded as current liabilities because they have not been paid out. The main focus of accrual accounting is hence to record such expenses that are not yet paid. This is different from the cash accounting form as in the cash accounting form income is usually recorded as and when the payment is received. While cash and accrual are both accepted methods, accrual is the one that is mandated as required under the GAAP. It would be difficult to actually determine an exact way in which one accounting method might be better than another because the manner in which the income to company and expenses incurred are recognized could be different (Zhou, 2016; Kormendi, & Lipe, 1987)

Earning components and their effects on predicting future financial performance of firms have been researched based on their persistence. The main aim was to analyse the extent to which cash flow and accruals are significant predictors and to understand the differences when using them. To that extent, the research also covered literature backdrop on the earnings components.
The assessment for accruals and cash flow was conducted with ten-year data from 30 companies that was collected from the Computstat database. It was established that future earning assessments can indeed be predicted with the accrual and cash flow earnings of past or current years. The research finding was also supported by evidence in existing research which also emphasized on the point that better disclosures and accounting practices could improve the efficiency of prediction. The assessment was conducted as a comparative analysis, however was not able to clearly establish which of the two -accruals or cash flows would help with better prediction. This is a limitation of the research. Future extension of the research work can consider persistence concerns with cash flow and accruals to check where one might work better than another. However, this would be based on context, firm, their accountability practices, and compliance to disclosures.

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