论文翻译:消费

论文翻译:消费

心理学家丹尼尔·卡尼曼(Daniel Kahneman)和阿莫斯·特沃斯基(Amos Tversky)在1970年建立了前景理论,其中包括价值和禀赋概念。Value代表一个参考点,损益都可以从这个参考点估算出来,而endowment则是指购买者在其他人没有某件物品时对该物品的有价值的占有。消费者在做决定时使用不同类型的策略。在补偿策略中,消费者在市场上购买商品时,对某一特征给予较高的价值,而对另一特征给予较低的价值。同样,在非补偿策略中,购买者会给两个属性相同的值。如果一个值不能满足客户的需求,那么该项目将立即从他们的想法中删除。
社会经济地位较低的消费者使用线索利用理论(Richardson et al., 1994)来判断产品。目前,联合测量和多维尺度被广泛用作决策过程的测量工具(Green & Wind, 1973)。Conjunctive、disjunctive、lexicographic、compensation都用于研究消费者的行为。词典是决定产品优劣的最重要因素。决策过程中还涉及两种营销理论。一个是参与性,另一个是品牌意识。认知尝试在介入理论中占有重要地位。认知信息是程序性学习的过程(Allen and Madden, 1985)。它自动地出现在一个人的头脑中,并相应地采取行动(Blackwell et al., 2001)。

论文翻译:消费

Psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky built up the Prospect theory in the year 1970, in which they included value and endowment concept. Value represents a reference point and both loss and gains can be estimated from that reference point, whereas endowment refers valuable possession of an item by a purchaser when others do not have. Consumers use different types of strategy while making decisions. In the compensatory strategy, while purchasing an item from the market, consumers give higher values to one characteristic and less to another. Similarly, in the non-compensatory strategy, the purchasers will give equal values to both the attributes. If one value fails to satisfy the customer, immediately the item will be removed from their thoughts.
Consumer with a low socioeconomic status uses cue utilization theory (Richardson et al., 1994) through which they can judge the product. Currently, conjoint measurement and multidimensional scaling are widely used as a measurement tools for decision making process (Green & Wind, 1973). Conjunctive, disjunctive, lexicographic, compensatory are used for studying the behaviour of the consumer. Lexicographic is the most important factor where the item can be selected immediately if it is superior to other products.Two marketing theories are also involved in the decision making process. One is the involvement and the other is the brand consciousness. Cognitive attempt plays an important part in involvement theory. The cognitive information is the process of procedural learning (Allen and Madden, 1985). It comes automatically in one’s mind and act accordingly (Blackwell et al., 2001).