新西兰论文网:纳米医学对癌症的治疗

新西兰论文网:纳米医学对癌症的治疗

纳米医学由于体积极小,对癌症治疗有效。副作用与其他流行的癌症治疗方式有关(Du, Cullen Buettner, 2012)。纳米药物的小尺寸可以帮助他们准确地与癌细胞或肿瘤细胞结合,从而能够给出满意的结果。其他形式的癌症治疗也有阻力和缺乏敏感性和选择性的形式的限制。然而,根据(Cha et al. 2014),纳米医学有能力处理这些局限性。在这种作用下,许多纳米颗粒聚集在肿瘤细胞周围,从而阻止了肿瘤细胞的生长。与其他细胞相比,这些纳米颗粒更容易与癌细胞结合,从而使正常细胞免受纳米药物的影响。肿瘤细胞能够通过促进血液流动而生长,从而帮助肿瘤血管生成。它们还高度依赖血液中的氧气流动。

新西兰论文网:纳米医学对癌症的治疗
癌细胞有无效的淋巴引流系统,导致分子和滞留系统不正常。此外,与正常细胞不同的是,肿瘤细胞有血管,有疏松的细胞连接,大分子物质可以通过它逃逸。这是化疗失败的主要原因,因为它们含有大分子物质(Wicki et al. 2015)。纳米药物使用了EPR效应。由于这种作用是建立在肿瘤血管的高通透性的基础上的,因此使用血管介质如缓激肽是必不可少的。这有助于增强EPR的效果。用于癌症治疗的纳米药物必须精确设计以利用EPR效应。纳米药物体积小,可以避免肝脏或肾脏对其的吸收,同时也可以避免肾脏对其进行过滤。这有助于药物在血液循环系统中停留更长时间(Dawidczyk et al. 2014)。

新西兰论文网:纳米医学对癌症的治疗

As nanomedicine is of extremely small size, it is effective for cancer treatment. The side effects are related with other popular form of cancer treatment (Du, Cullen Buettner, 2012). The small sizes of nanomedicines help them to bind accurately with the cancerous or tumor cells and thus are able to give satisfactory result. The other forms of cancer treatments also have limitations in the form of resistance and lack of sensitivity and selectivity. However, according to (Cha et al. 2014), nanomedicines have the capability to deal with these limitations. In this effect many nanosized particles accumulate around the tumor cells and thereby prevent the growth. These nanoparticles have more tendencies to bind around the cancerous cells compared to the other cells and thus the normal cells are spared from the effect of the nanomedicine. The tumor cells are able to grow by enhancing the blood flow and thereby helping cancer angiogenesis. They also depend highly on the flow of oxygen in blood.

新西兰论文网:纳米医学对癌症的治疗
The cancerous cells have ineffective lymphatic drainage system that leads to the irregular molecular and retention system. Moreover, unlike the normal cells, tumor cells have blood vessels, with loose cell junction through which the macromolecular agents can escape. This is the major cause of failure of chemotherapeutic treatments as they contain macromolecular substance (Wicki et al. 2015).The nanomedicines have used the EPR effect. As this effect is based on the high permeability of tumor vasculature, use of vascular mediators such as bradykinin is essential. This can help to enhance the EPR effect. The nanomedicines that are used for cancer treatment have to design precisely to take the advantage of the EPR effect. The small sizes of nanomedicines help them to avoid absorption by liver or kidney and yet the size is perfect to avoid being filtered by kidney. This helps the medicines to remain within the blood circulation system for longer (Dawidczyk et al. 2014).