In the year 2006, Maliki was selected by U.S for leading the new government of Iraq. Maliki was non-zealous, shrewd and casted himself as a strongman of pragmatism who has the ability to hold the nation together when eventually U.S would withdraw its troops down. In a system, however, wherein political processes and alliances have their basis on identification of religion, Maliki as the Prime Minister faced various struggles for shoring up and expanding coalitions, dealing with competitors and building a supporters network especially when no distinct sectarian perspective was adopted by him.
On the spectrum’s other end, ham fisted de-Baathification policies of Bremer with regard to military and bureaucracy of Iraq, affected in a disproportionate manner, the Sunnis, who over represented the Baathist regime of Saddam. In an over-whelming manner, it removed the elites of social and military Sunni from their power positions along with limiting their stakes within the new government of Iraq. This was a move that left the Sunnis with several means that instigated them to undermine the process of political reflection. The population of Sunni’s broadly could see itself as disempowered with less recourse of politics that leads towards rectifying grievance. As a consequence, developed at an increasing level, was completely susceptible to armed resistance called from elites of disgruntled Sunni’s.
As a consequence of such dynamics, insurgency in opposition to states and patrons from foreign nations started growing towards sectarianism and radical perspective. Such trends furthermore, led towards culminating the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI) to rise. ISI is a group with higher radical nature that even Laden had to chastise it. This was due to expending of a lot of energy and resources to attack the minority ethnics and religious groups at the cost of primary mandate of Al-Qaeda.This was driving out the foreign nations and deposing the tyrants of Middle East.
The reign of terror of ISI, led towards Christians and Assyrians being urged from Iraq. Segregation was apparent on geographical grounds of the Shias and Sunnis with dropping rates of inter-marriage and overtly sectarian political discourse. The U.S surge in 2007 led to halting the advancement and capitalization of growing disaffection of Sunni’s. However, the measure ultimately failed at resolving the underlying dysfunction of socio-political nature of Iraq, which resulted in implosion followed by the withdrawal of U.S. This was further amplified in the initial times of Arab uprisings in 2011 with growth regional strength. This is significant to expand influence and start undermining rivals in the midst of counter-revolutions and revolutions. Such a surge in sectarian competition through the Middle East in turn resulted in specifically negative results for Iraq. After the success of the affiliates of Al-Qaeda in Syria, sphere of influence was further expanded by the ISI. The group established many emirates such as in Raqqa in order to defy the leadership of Al-Qaeda, and the name was changed to Islamic state and Levant known as ISIL for reflecting the new ambitions in the region. Further, ISI made its return in a triumphant to Iraq after unprecedented wealth and resources levels from Syria were pillaged.