Earlier, the studio system mainly paid attention to the studio audiences and the mass audiences. The new changes had focused on the demographic factors. The economic boom that was experienced by America in 1960s significantly reduced the unemployment to nearly 50% and the mass migration to suburbs had increased. The migration also brought about the reduced number of audiences from cities. However, the old directors continued to encourage young minds to contribute to the American film industry. This period or the era was called as “New” because the young film makers started using the new technologies and techniques and enjoyed the independence through making fictions and documentaries (Williams and Hammond, 2006). Some of the old players like Stanley Kubrick, Sidney Lumet, and John Cassavetes also adapted the new process and became part of the New Hollywood. These film makers were the first who contributed towards breaking the old system of films in Hollywood and gained independence in film making.
1960s therefore was the turning point in the history of American cinema. The young minds and new directors started using their distinct styles in movies. They started enjoying the power, wealth, and prestige. Many European filmmakers, who had already been established in the ‘New Wave’, later became part of the New Hollywood. This period also witnessed the entry of the new faces in acting. These new actors were Al Pacino, Robert De Niro, Jack Nicholson and many more (Krämer, 2005). The two significantly important movies that sent the shockwaves in Hollywood were Bonnie & Clyde and The Graduate. These films brought about the films about the rebellious youth and gave rise to “cinema of alienation, anomie, anarchy, and absurdism” (Krämer, 2005, p. 54).
Due to many reasons, the film industry was losing the young audiences. Film makers in the New Hollywood started focusing on making the films to attract the young audiences. This was the reason why the concept, ideas, approaches, and techniques of film making had changed. The young filmmakers, young actors, directors, and writers brought significant changes to the process of the producer driven business in Hollywood. Throughout the period of studio system, the films were under the control of the production houses and were expected to be suitable for the viewers of all age group (King, 2002). The production Code stipulation was “No picture shall be released which will lower the moral standards of those who see it” (McLean, 2009, p. 3).