新西兰论文代写-儿童发展心理学的理论模型

研究和心理学家们一直强调孩子们需要适当的有营养的环境才能成长。在考虑营养的概念时,必须同时考虑身体和情感因素。他们需要有成功的工具。儿童应该得到基本的营养,使他们成为社会的有价值的成员(Slee, 2002)。他们成长的环境是他们成年后发展的一个重要前驱。个人的家庭、学校、社会的政治和文化信仰对儿童的发展起着重要的作用。许多理论家提出了许多有趣的理论来确保儿童的发展获得情感支持。分析了这些理论对儿童发展心理学的启示。本研究以幼儿及幼童在幼儿中心担任学生教师期间的个人经历作为比较分析的依据。在具体的案例分析中,所辅导的孩子将被认为具有洞察力。在此基础上,运用发展心理学的相关理论进行了比较。在开始应用理论之前,需要提到的个人经验与儿童在托儿中心设置。我参与了帮助班里五个孩子的探索,也参与了在没有老师的情况下照顾班级。新西兰论文代写-儿童发展心理学的理论模型已被应用于理解发展阶段。

On analysis of the moral competency and the beliefs of the students it was found that they shaped based on the society and the adults surrounding them. Kohlberg theory has an explanation of the moral competency of the students (Crain, 2011). It has been found that the students belonged to the first category of the six categories to explain about the moral compass developed by the individuals Masten, A. S. (2001). In the initial stages there is more importance given to following orders. It is more obedience oriented. This is the first stage where the children follow order to prevent punishment. In lieu of this when the children in the case study group were asked if they would involve themselves in activities such as cutting class to play, they responded saying they were scared of the punishment (Crain, 2011). The second stage is the development of morality based on the relativist orientation. It has been found that the children were more oriented towards developing morally based on the gravity of needs. Good boy-nice girl orientation is the third stage in child morally development (Masten, 2001). Children are nice just to gain appreciation from the elders. Similar to this theme it was observed that the children followed the orders just to get on the good side of the tutors. Law and order orientation is stage 4 it was found that based on the social conventions and laws of the region, morality of the individuals were shaped (Crain, 2011). Within the society, based on individual perceptions morality is construed in the next stage of morality, children in their developmental stages need to weigh in the different perception and adopt an ethical pathway that is deemed right. In the sixth stage of morality, children are made to adopt an ethical and moral pathway based on the society’s ethics and value system. Criticism for this theory is that moral reasoning and moral behaviour of individuals are different. Sample size adopted and the methods of data collection have been questioned by other analysts for agreeing with Kohlberg theory. It has also been stated that Kohlberg does not factor in genders while forming opinions (Wallace, & Lewis, 1998). In spite of these criticisms overall importance of self, micro family factors and the macro societal factors has been applied in the term of Kohlberg theory (Crain, 2011). Applying this to the case study it has been found that the some children chose to help other children who were struggling in sports games such as volleyball. This could be because of the reasons proposed by Kohlberg. Nevertheless the exact reasoning behind helping others cannot be fully understood (Kohlber, 2011) It varies from person to person based on their subjective reasoning and requirements.

As a student teacher dealing with children on a regular basis the theoretical models were used to develop interventions. Initially, the narrative identity of the person was understood using these models. Some children did not know who to cope. They were given specialised intervention that was specific to help them become more competent. Using Freud theory, Erikson theory and Jung theory the importance of different levels of development during the early formative years were understood. Using this theory some levels of issues that were felt by the children were found. Focus of the interventions was towards the children struggling to cope and the children who appeared depressed. Their moral competencies were understood using the Kohlberg theory.  To instill more ethical behaviour in the children, they were gently guided and provide with the tools where they could essentially sustain and be ethical individuals. Interventions were proposed for the children based on their specific needs. 

Narrative identity of a person refers to the individual perception and identity of a person. It states that a person chooses to be happy or sad depending on their surroundings. They can choose to be happy in spite of the inherent issues. But there are gaps in the narrative identity concepts. Even though the happiness of a person is based on subjective reasoning the impact of environment has a profound effect on the individuals. This was found from the observational analysis and considering of other theoretical models. All these theoretical models points to the fact that the individuals’ development age is before the age of 18. Identity is developed during this time. During these formative years, children should have the tools to ensure that they are given the right form of nourishment. All these theories points to understanding of the person and developing empathy. It has been found from this analysis that using these specific tools. This was also found from the case study analysis. Hence from reading the theoretical models and from analysis of the case study in the school it has been found that a person’s identity is influenced by the external factors and in the internal psyche. It is important to develop a positive nourishing environment for the child to grow up healthily. 

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