新西兰会计:美国大萧条时期

新西兰会计:美国大萧条时期

美国对欧洲的经济政策:1930年,由于企业的不断倒闭,美国的政府制定了《斯穆特-霍利关税法》。这一关税有助于保护美国公司,在这一关税下,政府向外国公司征收更高的进口税(Adams, James Truslow, 2012)。由于外国和美国之间的贸易减少,关税产生了意想不到的后果,一些国家开始对美国进行经济报复。干旱状况:美国的干旱状况促成了大萧条。1930年,密西西比河谷的干旱导致了如此严重的后果,许多人无法交税,甚至无法偿还债务。这导致了那些没有利润的人卖掉农场。由于这些原因,该地区被命名为“沙尘暴”。大萧条被认为是一场普通的衰退,后来由于银行业危机和美联储未能扩大货币供应而演变成深度萧条。
也有人认为,大萧条的复苏直到1937年才开始步入正轨。1937年,美联储提高了银行的存款准备金率,总统罗斯福减少了财政刺激。美国经济可能会朝着这一趋势回归。与这一趋势相比,人均消费到1939年根本没有恢复。在人均工作时间方面,仅恢复了20%。投资几乎没有复苏,但这比趋势低60%或更多(Crawford, Seth, 2013)。为了缩短商业周期,税收和支出经常被政府削减。当罗斯福接任总统一职时,为了重新启动经济,政府在赤字开支方面做出了承诺。然而,大多数历史学家认为美国直到1940年才走出大萧条,那时美国的工厂为第二次世界大战生产武器。

新西兰会计:美国大萧条时期

American Economic Policy with Europe: The Smoot-Hawley Tariff in 1930 was created by the government of United States because of the continuous failure of the businesses. This tariff was helpful in protecting the American companies and under this tariff higher taxes were charged for imports by the government from the companies of foreign countries (Adams, James Truslow, 2012). The tariff had unintended consequences of reduced trades between foreign countries and United States and some of the nations started economic retaliations against United States. Conditions of Drought: The conditions of drought in the United States contributed in the Great Depression. In 1930, the drought of Mississippi Valley resulted in such harsh consequences that many of the people became unable to pay their taxes and could not even repay their debts. This resulted in the selling of the farms by the people with no profits for themselves. Due to such reasons that area was named as “The Dust Bowl”. There is a controversial view about the starting of the Great Depression that is considered as a garden variety recession that later turned into deep depression due to the banking crises and the Federal Reserve failure for expanding the supply of money.
It is also argued that the Great Depression recovery started coming on track until 1937. In 1937, the reserve requirements of the bank were raised by Fed and the fiscal stimulus were reduced by the President Roosevelt. The economy of the United States could make the returning towards the trend. The per-capita consumption in comparison to the trend did not recovered at all by 1939. The recovery of just 20% was observed in the per-capita hours of working. There was little recovery in the investments but that was 60% or more below the trend (Crawford, Seth, 2013). For shortening the business cycles the taxes and the spending are frequently cut by the government. When the presidency was taken over by the FDR then the engagements were made in the deficit spending with an aim of restarting the economy. Still, it is not believed by majority of the historians that the United States came out of the Great Depression until 1940, it was a time when the factories of America the armaments were produced for the Second World War.