The constructivist research philosophy is used here. The constructivist research is a form of research where data on the world is considered to be already available and pre-existing. The data is an objective fact and it is the role reformed by the researcher which brings this data into inquiry. The research unearths this data from the actual social participants who are either part of the making of such data or are part of the phenomenon in which the data occupies first place. Multiple constructed realities are hence possible, as human actors interacting with a phenomenon will have different perceptions. However, an acute study of these perceptions will be useful to understand the social constructed reality of the phenomenon. The trends and convergences in the perceptions will give the researcher an understanding of how the social media marketing phenomenon is viewed in companies. The actors associated with the phenomenon whose perceptions are going to be collected are the marketing level managers in different companies. The constructivist method uses humans as the major data collection instrument.
Epistemology defines “how we know what we know” (Crotty, 1998, p.8). In other words, it can be defined as “the nature of the relationship between the knower or would-be knower and what can be known” (Guba & Lincoln, 1998, p. 201). Epistemology hence defined a philosophical grounding based on which decision can be made on the different kinds of knowledge that can possibly be gathered in a given situation and also how the knowledge gathered could be considered as being adequate and legitimate.