Modern Chinese Literature emerged during the period of 1895 to 1911. May Fourth Movement was the most powerful factor influencing culture during this time period. The works on poetry and novels appeared to be imbued with the revelation of social problems and was based on the theme of patriotism (Wang, 2002). It was also concerned with historical upheaval, changing ethical values etc. This was a period of boom in fictional writing as it opened up windows to adapt to new cultures. This was enthralling for readers as it filled them with exotic ideas. This, in turn, revolutionised the community of writers and readers marking a change in the novelistic tradition which encouraged experimentation with new forms of language.
The novels written during this period are Rickshaw Boy by Lao She. This novel reveals the dark side of the society, harsh lives of the lower class and the repression towards rickshaw men. Another novel was Na Han by Lu Xun, which shows the writers concern about reforming the society. His aim was to inspire young people and develop independent thinking. Besides this, there was a magazine called New Youth Magazine which was launched during the period of New Cultural Revolution.
Contemporary literature is referred to the period spanning from 1911 to the emergence of modern period in 1949. The beginning of the contemporary period brought a new vigour that allowed an evolution of a revised form of literature as a language into an open and individual art that was accessible to the entire society. It contained of literary works in both classical language and vernacular language, but soon all the classical literary works and writings were displaced by the vernacular language.