如何写好个人简历:诚信原则

如何写好个人简历:诚信原则

有一些普遍的原则是所有国家都接受的。这些原则被认为对所有国家都是类似的,并且是大多数国家的国家法律普遍接受的对与错的信念。以诚信为例,诚信是任何协议达成所必需的概念。各国在对案件作出决定时,通常会考虑诚信问题。由于几乎所有的国家都分析了“诚信”的要求,它几乎肯定被接受为国际法的一个标准(Jackson, 1997)。如果没有条约或习惯国际法可以用来讨论一个问题,各国可以采用适用一般原则。与一般原则类似,在制定国际法时,司法决定也可作为一种替代形式。第38条第(1)(d)款阐明了何时可以使用司法决定的立场。然而,可能没有一个具有约束力的先例。司法决定只能适用于要求作出判决的特定案件。然而,当国际法院规约需要处理国际法庭的决定时,它可以利用自己过去的决定。因此,过去的案例被用作指导源的一种形式。
此外,第38条第(1)(d)款将不区别于国际法院和国家法院作出的决定。此外,也可以考虑国际资料来源的著作。也可以考虑联合国大会形式的资料来源。然而,这些其他来源大多既不完整也不是绝对形式,因此必须根据问题解决的上下文来考虑(Greenwood, 2008)。国际法在20世纪下半叶,第二次世界大战后被认为发生了变化。消息来源也发生了同样的变化。例如,在第一次世界大战之后的20年里,设立了一些类别来保护难民。这些在当代被称为软法则。“基本转向和平与合作,发展和加强国际组织,我们这个时代的快速应对巨大的挑战,新的国际法律的范围的不断扩大和集约化的规范性内容以及它的其他特性似乎证明积极的判断在二战后发展时期”(2014年周,p.269)。

如何写好个人简历:诚信原则

There are some general principles that are accepted by all nations. These are principles that are considered as being similar for all nations and are beliefs that are accepted right and wrong in general manner as well as by national laws in most nations. As an example considers the belief of faith, good faith is a concept that is considered as necessary for any agreement making. Countries will usually consider the issue of good faith when they make a decision on a case. Since almost all countries analyse the ‘good faith’ requirement, it is almost as certainly accepted as a standard in international law (Jackson, 1997). Where there are no treaties or customary international law to be used to discuss an issue, countries could resort to applying the general principles. Similar to general principles judicial decisions might also be used as a form of substitute when it comes to international law making. Article 38(1) (d) clarifies the position on when judicial decisions could be used. There however might not be a binding precedent. The Judicial decision could only apply to the particular case for which a judgement has been sought. The Statute of the ICJ however might make use of its own past decision when it needs to address international tribunal decisions. Hence past cases are used as a form of guidance source.
The Article 38(1) (d) furthermore will not differentiate from decisions made in the international court and national courts. In addition to these, the writings of international sources might be considered as well. Sources in the form of United Nations General Assembly might also be considered. Most of these other sources however are neither complete nor absolute forms and hence have to be considered based on the context of issue resolution (Greenwood, 2008). The international law in the second half of the 20th century, post Second World War was seen to change. The change was as much in the sources. For instance, in the two decades after the First World War some categories were created to protect refugees. These in more current times are called the soft laws. “The fundamental reorientation towards peace and cooperation, the growth and strengthening of international organization, the quick responses to great challenges of our time, the widening of the scope of the new international law and the intensification of its normative content as well as its other features seem to justify a positive judgement on its development during the period after World War 2” (Zhou, 2014, p.269).