論文代寫-多動症在犯罪學中的研究意義

 論文代寫-多動症在犯罪學中的研究意義。患有多動症的人有沖動的傾向,很難集中注意力。他們在自我調節方面也會有困難。它是違法行為和藥物濫用的潛在危險因素。患有多動症和反社會行為的年輕人是繼續犯罪的高危人群。Pratt等人(2002)在ADHD與犯罪學的關系識別方面的研究工作具有重要意義。統計數據顯示,約3%和5%的在校青年被視為患有多動症(Pratt et al., 2002)。更具體的估計顯示,約6-12歲的青少年在4%和12%的比例上符合ADHD標准(Pratt et al., 2002)。雖然對多動症的估計單獨在犯罪學中沒有意義,但它們可以與需要調查的監獄犯人的類似統計數據相結合(Grimm & Wozniak, 1990)。

 

Israel & Ebstein (2010) argued that aggression and criminal tendencies link in humans in a complex way. There are both biological explanations and non-biological explanations for why the link happens (Wolraich et al., 1996; Thapar et al., 2001). Twin studies for instance were conducted on understanding the biological link and it was estimated that genetic factors perhaps contribute a significant variance when it comes to aggressive behaviour. Gene variants in different genders makes people more violent and aggressive and others lesser so. Studies also show associations between gender, aggression and criminality. A low variant of the monoamine oxidase A or the maoa gene can result in high aggression in the male (Israel & Ebstein, 2010). Not all aggression is genetically derived. Aggression is also formed out of associations based on the environment, and other predisposed conditions. A combination of these factors hence results in aetiology of violence.

Almost 40 per cent of children who have ADHD also develop or related disorders and conduct problems such as that of chronic aggression (Pratt et al., 2002). Oppositional defiant disorder is one such conduct issue that arises from ADHD where the child would tend to have frequent outbursts. The child will argue with the adult, will ignore any requests that are made to them, might have one too many outbursts, and would indulge in behaviour that is annoying for others.
Pratt et al. (2002) established with secondary research work that in the study of a prisoner population, it was possible to have at least an estimated 50 and 80 per cent as showing ADHD symptoms. Some might have ADHD diagnosed when they were a child and in others, it was possible that ADHD symptom manifestation happens later and hence their diagnostic assessment happens. Either ways, ADHD related aggressiveness as a contributing factor for criminality could not be rejected. The study of Pratt et al. (2002) concluded that ADHD posed a significant risk factor when it came to crime and delinquency in later life (Pratt et al., 2002). Such deviant associations have also been noted by researchers Goggin et al. (1998). Combined with ADHD, antisocial behavioural disorders, deviant peer associations, and low self-control are also observed in assessing for criminal delinquency (Goggin et al., 1998).

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