论文代写-产品标准化的原因

论文代写-产品标准化的原因。标准化作为一种适合所有人的方法,是为特定商品或服务设置相同特征的实践(Ang和Massingham, 2007)。标准化的主要原因是规模经济(Ghantous, 2008),它可以降低生产的单位成本(Ang and Massingham, 2007)。由于标准化战略简化了全球营销方法,因此成本效益和标准化战略的管理对许多公司具有吸引力。Ghantous(2008)认为标准化策略显著降低了营销领域的成本,如研发和推广。因此,它使企业能够投入更多的营销活动,从而在价格方面比其他本地竞争对手更具竞争力。

Several elements in both strategic and operational factors have to be considered in order to determine an international standardization strategy. Managers have to decide whether to standardize or on the contrary adapt to local conditions (Ghantous, 2008). For example, in speaking of the international communication strategy of a brand, the issue of standardization emphasizes four distinct elements of this strategy, namely the mission, the proposition, the concept and the execution (Van Raaij, 1997).
Similarly, Kustin (1994) mentioned that it is very complicated to choose a global strategy proposal to establish the correct strategy. Nevertheless, he proposed that culture can be neglected and all products can be standardized. To make a marketing plan, the type of market and the degree of standardization are important to be taken into account. Kutin (1994) also noted that standardization strategy is better off in markets that are categorized and segmented with similarities. International marketing strives to achieve success in standardized product strategies, where products are sold at rational prices in international markets (Kustin, 1994). The product is standardized but its price is adjusted in accordance with the economic situation in the foreign market.
Moreover, standardization strategy can be considered on a global scale or regional scale in a geographic term (Ghantous, 2008). For one thing, in global scale, product strategy varies on marketing executions among different transnational segments, each one of which covered the entire national markets. For another thing, in regional scale, separate markets can be regrouped in a limited cluster of adapting executions to each cluster. The geographic scale of standardization strategy is considered very important in building a universal brand (Douglas et al, 2001). In fact, Levitt (1983) considered the world as a single market, and others considered that similarities of the market only exist inside the countries which get close to each other geographically and recommend this regionalization of worldwide brands (Hsieh, 2002). In fact, both global and regional scale coexists today, and they can be found in an international corporation (Douglas et al, 2001). Moreover, Kapferer (2005) noted that regionalization of standardization can be used as a selective globalization of the post-global trademark between the local and the global. These regional strategies can be built on groups of counties classified in accordance with their cultural dimensions or regions which have achieved political and economic integration processes, such as the European Union.

The motives mentioned above are important and have exerted great influence on the global product standardization. However, Ryans et al (2003) argued that despite its centrality to the focal research issue, the extent of homogeneity of markets for marketing strategy, standardization hasn’t attracted much attention within the literature. Researchers probed into some customer response elements, such as the brand loyalty, risk perception and brand personality which were thought to be essential to the global cross-cultural marketing strategy, rather than focusing on the market homogeneity.

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