Changes within the company are filled with complexities and consist of various theories which are not only confusing but also contradictory. Within the context of literature, one of the major perspectives which are influential in nature is the approaches which are planned. This was put forth by Lewis who was of the opinion that the changes mainly involves three processes which include the positioning of the present behaviour, moving towards a new behaviour and then finally bringing a new behaviour. This is a three step model which was mainly adopted for the purpose of understanding the processes of organisational change. Since the very beginning of its formulation, the theory has not only been reviewed but also modified. The stages have all been divided in order to make the steps more specific. A four stage model was developed by Bullock and Batten (1985) which consisted of exploration, planning, action and lastly integration. Although Lewin’s theory has gained incredible popularity, it has undergone tremendous criticism as well due to its application only on small scale samples. This model has been based on the assumption that the organisations act under certain conditions which at times cannot be taken into account. It was observed that change is considered as a process of learning. This will help the organisation to react to all the changes that are related to the environment both internally and externally. As suggested by Todnem (2005), this is an approach which focuses on the readiness and facilitation of change other than providing steps which are pre planned.
The Psychological Contract
This contract was defined by Rousseau in the year 1989. It was a belief by the individuals regarding the conditions and the terms of the relationships with the other parties. The importance of the psychological contract is mainly twofold. The content of this contract is mainly not written, extremely informal and implicit. It is a fact that both the employees and the employers are likely to have different views in fulfilling the obligations of each of the party. One of the major criteria lies in the fact that the openness about the contract is crucial especially when it is associated with change. The other way where this concept of psychological contract is useful is that the organisational change enables to bring about a balance in the contract (Andriopoulos and Dawson, 2017). With an open environment and suitable channels of communication, it is the manager that ensures the fact that the expectations of both the employers and the employees are communicated well and clear. The expectations of the employers should be addressed effectively (Ingols et al., 2015).
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